格尔达·塔罗诞辰108周年

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格尔达·塔罗诞辰108周年gerda-taros-108th-birthday

格尔达·塔罗(德语:Gerda Taro,又译姬达·塔罗,1910年8月1日-1937年7月26日),真名为格尔达·波荷雷勒(Gerta Pohorylle),德国战地摄影师,摄影师安德鲁·弗里德曼的同伴和同事。塔罗被认为是第一位女性战地记者。

1937年,她在西班牙内战的前线上牺牲。

早年生活
塔罗在符腾堡王国(1806年-1918年德国一成员邦国)斯图加特出生,成长于一个中产阶级犹太族家庭。曾在一所瑞士寄宿学校就读。

1929年,在纳粹德国上台前,时年19岁的她随整个家庭搬到了德国的莱比锡,并加入了反对纳粹党的左翼团体。1933年,她因发布反国家社会主义宣传的内容而遭到拘捕。最终,整个家族被迫离开纳粹德国四散奔逃,是为诀别。

接触摄影
1934年,塔罗逃离希特勒的统治之下的德国,搬到了巴黎。次年,她遇到了摄影记者安德烈·弗里德曼(安德烈往往被称为罗伯特卡帕,而卡帕这一身份实为二人共同虚构),一位匈牙利犹太人。塔罗跟随他学习摄影,并成为他的私人助理。

后来,他们坠入爱河。在那个年代,犹太人越来越难找到工作,于是塔罗和安德烈一起虚构了后来家喻户晓的“罗伯特卡帕”这一身份,以这个名字在许多知名刊物发布作品。塔罗也开始为摄影联盟工作,担任图片编辑。

塔罗和卡帕之间的爱情,是摄影史上的一段佳话。
在西班牙内战

1936年,西班牙内战爆发,塔罗前往西班牙巴塞罗那,与卡帕和David“Chim”Seymour一起报道战事。在那里,塔罗获得了“小金发女郎”(Lapequeñarubia)的绰号。他们在阿拉贡东北部和科尔多瓦南部一起报道这场战争。

其间,源于对职业的热爱,她拒绝了卡帕的求婚。

此外,她公开与反法西斯的欧洲知识分子(欧内斯特海明威,乔治奥威尔)联络,一起为西班牙共和国斗争。

在瓦伦西亚爆炸事件中,塔罗拍下了她最著名的摄影作品。1937年7月,当她独自一人在马德里附近的布鲁内特地区为Ce Soir进行采访时,国际媒体注意到了塔罗的照片。虽然民族主义宣传声称该地区处于其控制之下,但共产党军队实际上已迫使他们撤出。

塔罗和她的相机是那个现场唯一的见证者和真实记录者。

牺牲
在布鲁内特战役共和军撤退期间,塔罗跳上一辆载有受伤士兵的汽车的踏板。一辆共产党军队的军坦克撞到了汽车的侧面,塔罗受了重伤,次日,即1937年7月26日,塔罗身亡。

英国记者罗宾·斯图默(Robin Stummer)在“ 新政治家 ”(New Statesman)杂志上撰文,质疑塔罗死亡的原因。 斯图默援引勃兰特,即后来的西德总理兼塔罗在的西班牙内战期间的朋友,说她是被苏联大清洗迫害身亡的。但是,斯图默没有提供其他证据来支撑这一说法。

据目击者称,她被一辆倒车中的坦克碾过,几小时后她在El Goloso一家英国医院中死亡。[7]在接受西班牙日报ElPaís采访时,布鲁内特战役中一名共产党士兵的侄子解释说,她在一次事故中丧生。

基于她的政治宣誓,塔罗是一位反法西斯主义者。1937年8月1日,在她27岁生日那天,法国共产党在巴黎举行了一场盛大的葬礼,将她埋葬在拉雪兹神父公墓,并委托阿尔贝托·贾科梅蒂为她的坟墓建造了一座纪念碑。

在2018年初,一张据称是她临终时的照片由治疗她的医生的儿子释出。

身后
2007年9月26日,国际摄影中心开设了第一个美国塔罗摄影作品大型展览。

2016年夏天,塔罗拍摄的西班牙内战照片在莱比锡摄影节的一角露天展示,活动结束时,主办方决定展示部分将永久保存,费用由众筹获得,但不久之后,在8月4日,塔罗的作品被涂黑并被毁掉。主办方通过众筹项目来恢复正在进行的工作,但破坏仍然存在。人们怀疑这种破坏的动机是反难民或反犹太主义情绪。

格尔达·塔罗于2018年8月1日在Google的Doodle上亮相,谨表缅怀

 

hough she was tiny in stature, Gerda Taro had the heart of a giant. Known as “the little red fox,” the ginger-haired photographer fearlessly turned her camera lens to capture sensitive and critical images of conflict around the world, producing powerful black-and-white images that informed readers of the newspaper Ce Soir. In fact, Taro is considered to be the first female journalist in the world to cover the front lines of conflict.

Born on this day in 1910 in Stuttgart, Germany, Taro moved to France shortly after Adolf hitler was appointed the chancellor of Germany 1933. In Paris she met Robert Capa, a fellow refugee three years her junior who taught her the basics of photography. They became friends, changed their names (she was originally named Gerta Pohorylle), and were enamored for a time. Capa would go on to co-found the Magnum Photo agency while Taro became known for her fearless reportage. “The troops loved her and she kept pushing,” said Taro’s biographer Jane Rogoyska. “Capa warned her not to take so many risks.”

During the last five months of Taro’s short career, she worked alone in Spain before tragically losing her life near El Escorial, northwest of Madrid, while capturing images on the front line of the Spanish Civil War in July 1937. By the age of 26, her searing battlefield images made her a household name, even though many of those images were misattributed to Capa.

Here’s to Gerda Taro, who had a photographer’s eye, a journalist’s soul, and a warrior’s courage.

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格尔达·塔罗诞辰108周年

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格尔达·塔罗诞辰108周年

gerda-taros-108th-birthday

Though she was tiny in stature, Gerda Taro had the heart of a giant. Known as “the little red fox,” the ginger-haired photographer fearlessly turned her camera lens to capture sensitive and critical images of conflict around the world, producing powerful black-and-white images that informed readers of the newspaper Ce Soir. In fact, Taro is considered to be the first female journalist in the world to cover the front lines of conflict.

Born on this day in 1910 in Stuttgart, Germany, Taro moved to France shortly after Adolf hitler was appointed the chancellor of Germany 1933. In Paris she met Robert Capa, a fellow refugee three years her junior who taught her the basics of photography. They became friends, changed their names (she was originally named Gerta Pohorylle), and were enamored for a time. Capa would go on to co-found the Magnum Photo agency while Taro became known for her fearless reportage. “The troops loved her and she kept pushing,” said Taro’s biographer Jane Rogoyska. “Capa warned her not to take so many risks.”

During the last five months of Taro’s short career, she worked alone in Spain before tragically losing her life near El Escorial, northwest of Madrid, while capturing images on the front line of the Spanish Civil War in July 1937. By the age of 26, her searing battlefield images made her a household name, even though many of those images were misattributed to Capa.

Here’s to Gerda Taro, who had a photographer’s eye, a journalist’s soul, and a warrior’s courage.

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